This article highlights indications of the role of the classics in the teaching of grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic as evidenced by the existing manuscripts from the period c. 950 to 1130 in England, that is, the roughly 180 years from the time when the changes brought about by the Benedictine Reform were felt in England until the full impact of Peter Abelard's writings set in. In an Appendix the article provides a full list of the manuscript evidence. The article itself discusses observations concerning the language arts which conform to the three criteria recently suggested as indicative of the classroom use of a given (instructional) text or manuscript: Firstly, the presence of modified, alongside full versions of teaching texts is evident in the tenth-century Excerptiones de Prisciano and Ælfric's further adaptation and translation of this text in his Old English Grammar. The modification of the end of Isidore’s book on rhetoric in Etymologiae, ii in the light of 'grammatical rhetoric' belongs here, as does a dialogue excerpt of Isidore's Etymologiae and Differentiae, which might well have served as an aid in teaching Isidore's De fide catholica. Secondly, didactic glosses and commentaries abound in educational manuscripts of the school authors, mainly for grammatical instruction with the aim of teaching how to read and interpret the Latin authors correctly; thus they represent the most obvious educational use of the classics. Furthermore, the commentary tradition on Ciceronian rhetoric is witnessed for the first time in early Anglo-Norman England. Thirdly and finally, the layout and disposition of the texts for educational purposes joins the instructional use of compilations of handbooks in the case of dialectical compilations and grammatical compilations which serve as information resources for the teacher. Schematic diagrams to visualize the structure of a complex exposition were clearly devised for didactic benefit. Included in the discussions is fresh evidence from the manuscripts Oxford, Bodl. Libr., MS Bodley 239 (2244) and BL, MS Royal 5. E. xvi.
In investigating progressives in Maltese English we use data from a sub-sample of ICE-Malta and parallel British and American texts, as well as questionnaires
from these countries. Progressives in written Maltese English, with one exception, broadly follow the British exonormative standard. However, substantial differences
are evident in spoken texts, including the extension of progressives to stative
verbs. But the differences cannot generally be explained in terms of overuse and extension. Our data confirm previous comparative studies in that the use of progressives also in Maltese English is subject to text type and formality
considerations. Two additional important factors are language contact (e.g. the
existence of parallel constructions and imperfectives in Maltese) and language-internal constraints (e.g. a cline between dynamic and stative verbs).