Introduction. Motivation is an important issue in both face-to-face and computer-supported collaborative learning. There are several approaches for enhancing motivation, including group awareness tools that provide feedback on the group’s motivation. However, this feedback was rarely unconfounded with other constructs. Additionally, it is only assumed and not investigated that the learners talk about their feedback and then remedy motivational prob-lems which leads to the observed motivation gain.
Method. In our experimental study, triads worked on a collaborative learning task either with (N = 33) or without (N = 18) a motivational feedback tool. Triads with a feedback tool were either prompted to discuss their results or not. We assessed motivation and knowledge before and after their work.
Results. We found no effect of the feedback tool on motivation or knowledge. Whether feed-back was discussed or not made no difference.
Discussion and Conclusion. These results indicate that a motivational feedback tool is only effective under specific circumstances which must be further researched.
The objective of this commentary is to propose fruitful research directions built upon the reciprocal interplay of social media and collective intelligence. We focus on “wicked problems” – a class of problems that Introne et al. (Künstl. Intell. 27:45–52, 2013) call “problems for which no single computational formulation of the problem is sufficient, for which different stakeholders do not even agree on what the problem really is, and for which there are no right or wrong answers, only answers that are better or worse from different points of view”. We argue that information systems research in particular can aid in designing appropriate systems due to benefits derived from the combined perspectives of both social media and collective intelligence. We document the relevance and timeliness of social media and collective intelligence for business and information systems engineering, pinpoint needed functionality of information systems for wicked problems, describe related research challenges, highlight prospective suitable methods to tackle those challenges, and review examples of initial results.
In this article, the relationship between study programs in higher education and the risk of
holding a temporary contract is investigated in a comparative perspective. We fi nd that the
effects fi elds of study have on the type of contract can be better explained by their link to
occupational positions than by fi
city differentials. Furthermore, fi
elds of study
are more important in explaining the individual risk of holding a temporary contract in the
German rather than in the UK labor market. This may be attributable to the higher degree
of standardization of the German educational system
In the course of educational expansion, ‘gender differences in access to higher education have decreased substantially in many European countries. In Germany women are currently over-represented in upper secondary education and more frequently attain a general qu1alification for university entrance. Despite those advantages, women still enrol in higher education less frequently. Even where they apply to higher education, their field of study choices differ from those of men. Drawing on recent data on upper secondary graduates, we seek to understand which factors account for both phenomena. Our findings suggest that the growing gender gap in the transition to higher education can be largely ascribed to differential perceptions of labour market outcomes. In addition, the more risk-averse assessment of study costs and success probabilities are more important for women's decision not to enter higher education. Furthermore, the gender gap in the choice of a technical field can be explained by differences in the subjectively perceived comparative advantage in technical skills and by differences in educational motivations and conceptions of life and career plans. These results lead to the conclusion that gendered educational choices are the consequence of effects that have their provenance much earlier in life.
Existing studies consistently find a gap in further education between high‐ and low‐skilled workers, implying a gap in formal training between high‐ and low‐skilled classes. In this paper, we hypothesize that the most important reasons for differences between social classes in further education participation are grounded in job characteristics rather than worker characteristics. This is in line with theoretical foundations of the construction of the widely used Erikson‐Goldthorpe‐Portocarero (EGP) class scheme and related classifications, such as the new European Socio‐Economic Classification (ESeC) scheme that we apply in our analyses. We explore the importance of different job characteristics for the explanation of the class gap with a dataset providing detailed information about the jobs of more than 20,000 German employees. The tasks performed and the technologies used in the job are found to be of particular importance. Both are able to explain much of the variation in training activity between different class positions and different educational levels. We discuss the implications of our results for social inequality. Our conclusion is that much of the variation of training incidents between classes comes from the very simple fact that they carry out different jobs. This should always be taken into account when inequality in training between individuals is examined.
In this paper we investigate social selectivity in access to higher education in Germany and, unlike most previous studies, explicitly devote attention to semi-tertiary institutions such as the so-called universities of cooperative education. Drawing on rational choice models of educational decisions we seek to understand which factors influence upper secondary graduates from different social backgrounds in their choices of diverse tertiary institutions in Germany. We find that scholastic performance, expected job security, study duration, monetary costs and preferences for study content considerably contribute to the creation of socially selective choice patterns of post-secondary careers. The characteristics of semi-tertiary institutions—such as universities of cooperative education that combine firm-based training with tertiary education—constitute a potential alternative that could reduce inequities in access to higher learning.